Multi-Decentralized Domain Name System
Before the Internet was well known, the network
address was composed of digital spacing points, such as 18.104.22.168. DNS
(Domain Name System) is the basic service of the Internet. As a database that
maps domain names and IP addresses to each other, it enables users to access
the Internet more conveniently. And it is used to convert machine-recognized
addresses into human-recognized addresses (such as google.com, baidu.com,
etc.). With the rapid development of the Internet, DNS as an important
infrastructure of the Internet, its security directly affects the quality of
Internet services. In TCP/IP network, DNS undertakes the task of mapping domain
names and IP addresses to each other, which is essentially a database. Since
the computer can only recognize the IP address in the network and cannot
identify the domain name, DNS services can facilitate users to access the
Internet without remembering IP addresses. DNS implements the translation
function of the IP address and the domain name.
In the domain name system, each domain can be further divided into
additional subdomains and has a unique name. A domain identifies its location
in the database. The domain name system starts from the bottom subdomain and
goes back to the root node. It use "." to split each name and combine
them into a unique domain name. The domain name system structure is shown in
the following figure.
The hierarchical structure can eliminate the problem of name
conflict and reduce the number of domain name lookups. Each domain has a unique
domain name, so organizations or individuals that manage the domain are free to
name hosts and subdomains in that domain.
Due to historical reasons, DNS domain name system is highly
centralized in design, and the stability of the entire system is heavily
dependent on the central node. On the other hand, the centralized structure
leads to the contradiction between security and performance, so that the DNSSEC
security extension protocol has been withdrawn for many years, but the
popularity is still not very optimistic. As one of the underlying foundations
of the entire Internet service, DNS handles billions of Internet access
requests from around the world every day. Users will not be able to access the
Internet if the DNS server goes down. Because of the fragility of its
architecture, it is easy to cause large-scale network paralysis, such as the
event of the inaccessibility of .com domain name website in 2014, which was
caused by hacker attacks, making Baidu, Jingdong, Youku and other websites
The root cause of the problem faced by the DNS domain name system
is its centralized structure. Centralization brings huge load pressure on the
central node, and brings about the contradiction between security and
performance. While people optimize the performance of the domain name system,
more serious security problems are also introduced. If the domain name system
is still the centralized solution in the future, the load and operational
pressure of the central node will become more and more difficult to alleviate.
Although the DNSSEC protocol improves the security of the DNS, it reduces the
performance and increases the operating cost of the central node. At the same
time, the security brought by the DNSSEC protocol will no longer exist if the
public key as the trust anchor is leaked.
In addition, the whole Internet is made up of data, which are
involved in almost everything valuable; however, there are many problems with
traditional methods of data storage methods and data access. Now, these
traditional ways are about to undergo major changes. The Internet Data
Structure (IoDS) is transforming the network from using address-linked data to
using hashed link data.
Based on the fact that DNS is the weakest link in the Internet
security chain, the blockchain network is used instead of the DNS server to
complete the mapping between domain names and IP addresses, which solves the
vulnerability of the DNS server and can bring huge benefits in the registration
and management of domain names. In addition, in the domain name transaction,
bidding, renewal, resolution and other links, the blockchain smart contract can
be adopted to eliminate the factors of human intervention, making the service
process more transparent, efficient and secure.
On the other hand, more and more services will be built based on
the blockchain in the future, such as the distributed cloud storage services.
File addressing in cloud storage is realized by a unique identifier of the file
hash value. Users can take an easy-to-understand domain name for the hash value
and then map the domain name to the file hash to achieve precise file
addressing. Therefore, the domain name services can be used in combination with
the file storage services on distributed cloud storage. The distributed domain
name system is designed to replace the hard-to-remember and irregular strings
such as file address, wallet address, smart contract hash, and the like with
words, phrases, and abbreviations. With the domain name service, users no
longer need to memorize the file addresses and hash values that are difficult
to understand and remember, as long as knowing a word or a phrase, they can
access files, transfer funds, call contracts, etc.
In the Internet era, the domain name is an important traffic entry
for a enterprise, just like a bridge between the Internet and the enterprise,
and one of the important assets of the enterprise. Similarly, in the era of
digital economy, domain names will also be important flow entrances for
organizations, teams and individuals, which will be the convenient way to
connect the digital world and the real world, so that the digital economy can
better serve the public.