Multi-Decentralized Domain Name System

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  • 07-10
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Multi-Decentralized Domain Name System

Before the Internet was well known, the network address was composed of digital spacing points, such as 220.181.57.216. DNS (Domain Name System) is the basic service of the Internet. As a database that maps domain names and IP addresses to each other, it enables users to access the Internet more conveniently. And it is used to convert machine-recognized addresses into human-recognized addresses (such as google.com, baidu.com, etc.). With the rapid development of the Internet, DNS as an important infrastructure of the Internet, its security directly affects the quality of Internet services. In TCP/IP network, DNS undertakes the task of mapping domain names and IP addresses to each other, which is essentially a database. Since the computer can only recognize the IP address in the network and cannot identify the domain name, DNS services can facilitate users to access the Internet without remembering IP addresses. DNS implements the translation function of the IP address and the domain name.


In the domain name system, each domain can be further divided into additional subdomains and has a unique name. A domain identifies its location in the database. The domain name system starts from the bottom subdomain and goes back to the root node. It use "." to split each name and combine them into a unique domain name. The domain name system structure is shown in the following figure.


The hierarchical structure can eliminate the problem of name conflict and reduce the number of domain name lookups. Each domain has a unique domain name, so organizations or individuals that manage the domain are free to name hosts and subdomains in that domain.


Due to historical reasons, DNS domain name system is highly centralized in design, and the stability of the entire system is heavily dependent on the central node. On the other hand, the centralized structure leads to the contradiction between security and performance, so that the DNSSEC security extension protocol has been withdrawn for many years, but the popularity is still not very optimistic. As one of the underlying foundations of the entire Internet service, DNS handles billions of Internet access requests from around the world every day. Users will not be able to access the Internet if the DNS server goes down. Because of the fragility of its architecture, it is easy to cause large-scale network paralysis, such as the event of the inaccessibility of .com domain name website in 2014, which was caused by hacker attacks, making Baidu, Jingdong, Youku and other websites inaccessible.


The root cause of the problem faced by the DNS domain name system is its centralized structure. Centralization brings huge load pressure on the central node, and brings about the contradiction between security and performance. While people optimize the performance of the domain name system, more serious security problems are also introduced. If the domain name system is still the centralized solution in the future, the load and operational pressure of the central node will become more and more difficult to alleviate. Although the DNSSEC protocol improves the security of the DNS, it reduces the performance and increases the operating cost of the central node. At the same time, the security brought by the DNSSEC protocol will no longer exist if the public key as the trust anchor is leaked.


In addition, the whole Internet is made up of data, which are involved in almost everything valuable; however, there are many problems with traditional methods of data storage methods and data access. Now, these traditional ways are about to undergo major changes. The Internet Data Structure (IoDS) is transforming the network from using address-linked data to using hashed link data.


Based on the fact that DNS is the weakest link in the Internet security chain, the blockchain network is used instead of the DNS server to complete the mapping between domain names and IP addresses, which solves the vulnerability of the DNS server and can bring huge benefits in the registration and management of domain names. In addition, in the domain name transaction, bidding, renewal, resolution and other links, the blockchain smart contract can be adopted to eliminate the factors of human intervention, making the service process more transparent, efficient and secure.


On the other hand, more and more services will be built based on the blockchain in the future, such as the distributed cloud storage services. File addressing in cloud storage is realized by a unique identifier of the file hash value. Users can take an easy-to-understand domain name for the hash value and then map the domain name to the file hash to achieve precise file addressing. Therefore, the domain name services can be used in combination with the file storage services on distributed cloud storage. The distributed domain name system is designed to replace the hard-to-remember and irregular strings such as file address, wallet address, smart contract hash, and the like with words, phrases, and abbreviations. With the domain name service, users no longer need to memorize the file addresses and hash values that are difficult to understand and remember, as long as knowing a word or a phrase, they can access files, transfer funds, call contracts, etc.


In the Internet era, the domain name is an important traffic entry for a enterprise, just like a bridge between the Internet and the enterprise, and one of the important assets of the enterprise. Similarly, in the era of digital economy, domain names will also be important flow entrances for organizations, teams and individuals, which will be the convenient way to connect the digital world and the real world, so that the digital economy can better serve the public.